Surgeon is a French word that refers to doctors who specialize in surgery. Modern medicine recognizes these medical specialists as licensed physicians who have also completed specialty training for surgery.

My father, an expert chirurgien, is currently being sued by millions due to a botched facelift procedure from one of these plastic surgeons.


Ablation is the leading treatment for heart arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation (AFib). Ablation employs small burns or freezes to destroy abnormal electrical tissue in your heart and stop signals that lead to rapid heart rhythms – greatly relieving symptoms. Ablation is also used as part of treating cardiomyopathies – diseases of heart muscle tissues – using minimally invasive catheter-guided procedures with local anesthesia for minimally invasive catheter ablation procedures.

Health care providers typically insert the catheter into a blood vessel in your groin or arm (more common) or neck (less frequent). They then guide it using electrodes attached to your skin or fluoroscopy, which creates a live X-ray image of your blood vessels and catheter. You will receive medication to keep you comfortable during the procedure.

Your physician then conducts an electrophysiology study to pinpoint where abnormal electrical activity is emanating in your heart, helping them locate where ablation catheters should be positioned for ablation procedures. They create a detailed map of your cardiovascular system using software mapping systems so they know precisely where they need to place their ablation catheters for burn or freeze ablation to stop arrhythmias from developing.

Once the doctors have surgically eliminated abnormal tissue, they close and bandage the site where tubes were inserted. You then spend several hours in a recovery room before you’re free to leave; depending on any preexisting conditions or complications that need monitoring you may require spending one or more nights at hospital.

As part of your recovery, it’s recommended to drink plenty of water. This will prevent too much fluid being lost from your body and could result in dizziness and weakness, along with dizziness when standing up too quickly or exercising strenuously. Take it easy! You should rest and avoid strenuous physical activities until fully recovered.


Surgeons perform this procedure to treat prolapse of the front wall of the vagina and can use laparoscopic surgical tools if necessary. Depending on its length, spinal or general anesthesia will likely be prescribed, with either method including an airway tube to aid breathing while also clearing away any contents which might increase risk during surgery.

Surgical repair may be performed to relieve pain caused by nerve injury or damage to the ligament that activates your shoulder muscle (deltoid). No matter whether an open, mini-open, or arthroscopic technique is chosen; surgeon expertise is more crucial for successful results than technique choice. Antibiotics may be given during surgery in order to decrease risk of infection; alternatively a catheter may be placed into your bladder to drain urine faster and compression stockings may be worn during recovery for protection from blood clots in legs and lungs during recovery.


Reconstruction refers to the process of restoring function to an injured area of your body due to injury or illness. Reconstructive surgery may also help improve appearance for women who have undergone mastectomy to treat breast cancer.

Reconstructive surgery comes in various forms. Some utilize artificial implants while others rely on natural tissue. Your surgeon can discuss all available options with you and suggest the one most suited to meet your specific needs.

Reconstructive surgery can be performed either by the same surgeon who removes your cancer, or another surgeon. It could occur immediately following your mastectomy or months or years later depending on your medical condition and type of procedure; for optimal results it’s often wiser to wait until chemotherapy and radiation treatments have finished before having this operation performed.

Autologous flap reconstruction surgery uses your body’s natural tissue to rebuild breasts. These surgeries, known as autologous flap techniques, require more invasive surgery and take longer for recovery than implant-based reconstruction techniques. Furthermore, this surgery may leave scars where tissue comes from; your surgeon may select from among abdomen, back, buttocks or inner thigh as donor sites; some microvascular surgeons specialize in such microvascular reconstruction surgeries as well.

Surgeons specialize in reconstructive procedures that repair skin damaged by radiation therapy or other treatments, like adding tissue for a larger nipple after lumpectomy surgery; this may improve appearance but will not restore normal sensation in your nipple. Furthermore, your surgeon might insert a drain after this type of operation to reduce swelling and bruising.


Grafting, also known as graftage, is the process of joining plant tissues from different species together in such a way that they continue to thrive and co-exist as one plant. The upper portion is known as the scion while its rootstock. Grafts can be used to alter fruit tree varieties or add another species such as rose of Sharon shrubs to garden landscapes.

An effective graft requires that the vascular tissues of both stock and scion join. This is usually accomplished using cleft grafting, in which a knife or other tool splits open an old rootstock’s stub to expose living cambial tissue and inserts a scion into its wound. Once connected, pressure, grafting tape, or rubber budding strips hold this union together – however in dicot plants callus tissues may form over the wounded surface and interlock to form one union!

Grafting can also be used to repair damage to plants and develop novel plant forms, like trees with multiple limbs or branches or an open center in their trunks. Grafting is particularly useful for changing fruit orchard cultivars quickly and affordably than replanting entire orchards, saving time and money along the way.

Ornamental and functional tree shaping involves employing grafting techniques to shape trees into attractive furniture-like or heart shapes for residential entry arches, using specially prepared roots or trunks, while others employing both old and new wood in order to produce desired effects.


Implantation occurs early in a pregnancy when an embryo (known at this stage as a blastocyst) attaches and invades the uterus wall of a female uterus after fertilization takes place in her fallopian tube. If successful, an embryo will burrow deeply into its lining before creating its own blood supply through placenta.

At the time of implantation, an embryo (known as a blastocyst in pregnancy parlance) releases an adhesive protein that bonds to carbohydrates on the surface of the uterine wall, helping it attach itself to it, as noted by Dr. Sibel, a reproductive endocrinologist and fertility specialist who serves on What to Expect Medical Review Board.

Scientists theorize that cell adhesion proteins known as integrins direct this interaction, while increased L-selectin concentrations make the uterus more amenable to implantation as it binds carbohydrates more readily allowing trophoblastic cells – embryo cells – to reach female endometria, leading to successful blastocyst implantation.

Your healthcare provider will first numb the skin on your inner upper arm with local anesthetic via spray or injection before inserting an implant using a small needle-like device. A bandage may then cover this placement site and help reduce bruising.

Implants containing hormones to stop ovaries from releasing eggs have proven over 99% effective at stopping pregnancy, without needing a break in sexual activity and are reversible (though you must visit a healthcare professional every 3 years to remove).

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